Winter Adaptations
by Sue Walker
Broadcast 1.31.2016

red fox in snow

Photo by Charles Anderson (CC 2.0).



Humans tend to sense and respond to winter – the cold, the snow, the wind, the short days – by controlling their environment. We mediate winter’s effect by living in a warm house, wearing thick jackets, or flying like “snowbirds” south to warm and sunny climates.

Plants and animals also sense and respond to winter. In some ways, their responses are remarkably similar to our own. Mountain goats and wolves gain thicker coats. Migratory birds fly south. However, rather than “controlling” their environment, plants and animals have adapted to their environment. Winter is a time when the natural world must conserve energy to ensure survival.

There are more examples of winter adaptations: moose lower their body temperatures during the winter, thereby reducing their basal metabolism and reducing food requirements. Badgers and wolverines can go into torpor (short periods of dormancy), whereas bears, ground squirrels, and marmots hibernate. Reptiles and amphibians have adopted a “passive” strategy in winter, preferring to hang out at the bottom of ponds or beneath rocks. Small birds and mammals have variable body temperature (known as heterothermy) and may even huddle to stay warm. Even bees swarm to stay warm.

Some plants and insects avoid winter altogether by dying; that is, they produce seeds or eggs that overwinter while the adult dies. Deciduous trees shed their leaves to conserve energy, while conifers “harden,” which is a physiological acclimation to increasingly cold temperatures. Spruce trees, and conifers in general, have also adapted to winter by evolving branches which slope out and downward, allowing snow to fall off.

Humans sense and respond to winter very differently. While some of us hibernate, others adopt high tech winter gear and careen off mountain slopes for the sheer joy of it! Whatever your sense and response to winter, you may find that winter demands more energy, planning, and thoughtfulness. Like the natural world we must also conserve precious energy. We must adapt not only to winter’s demands, but winter’s unpredictability, like warm winters and false springs.

Even if you’re a hibernator, learn to adapt and don’t miss out on winter’s beauty or time for rejuvenation. Praise winter! Seek out dripping icicles, crystalline silence, and softly-lit landscapes. Gather snowflakes. Listen for the call of the wild in the chill wind. Huddle and swarm. And in the evening’s alpenglow bless the seeds of life waiting in the darkness for the call of the spring.


Every week since 1991, Field Notes has inquired about Montana’s natural history. Field Notes are written by naturalists, students, and listeners about the puzzle-tree bark, eagle talons, woolly aphids, and giant puffballs of Western, Central and Southwestern Montana and aired weekly on Montana Public Radio.

Click here to read and listen to more Field Notes. Field Notes is available as a podcast! Subscribe on iTunesGoogle Play, or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Interested in writing a Field Note? Contact Allison De Jong, Field Notes editor, at adejong [at] montananaturalist [dot] org or 406.327.0405.

Want to learn more about our programs as well as fun natural history facts and seasonal phenology? Sign up for our e-newsletter! You can also become a member and get discounts on our programs as well as free reciprocal admission to 300+ science centers in North America!